The percentage of deaths in Nigeria that occur in the first month of life make up 28% of all deaths under five years, yet most of these deaths can be prevented by simple interventions, such as exclusive breastfeeding. This paper aims to address the challenges of reducing neonatal mortality in Nigeria by examining the efficacy of home-based, newborn care interventions and policies that have been implemented successfully in India. A comparison of similarities and differences between India and Nigeria was done using qualitative and quantitative data of various health indicators. The analysis included identifying policy-related factors contributing to India’s newborn survival rates. A literature search of randomized controlled trials of community health worker interventions shown to reduce neonatal mortality was also conducted. While it appears that Nigeria spends more money than India on health per capita and as percent GDP, it still lags behind India in its neonatal, infant, and under five mortality rates. Both countries have comparably low numbers of healthcare providers. In contrast to Nigeria, India’s community health workers receive training on how to deliver postnatal care in the home setting. Three randomized controlled trials of home-based, newborn care strategies revealed that community health workers trained to provide a preventive package of interventions during multiple postnatal visits in rural India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan reduced neonatal mortality percentages by 54%, 34%, and 15-20%, respectively. To address the urgency of neonatal mortality, countries with weak health systems need to invest in evidence-based, newborn care interventions that utilize available human resources. The current available evidence of models of postnatal care provision demonstrates that home-based care and health education provided by community health workers can effectively reduce neonatal mortality rates.
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